Friday, 17 July 2020

Disintegrating Marks

Exam and admission season is going all over the country. It is shocking every admission seeker has scored in the eighties and nineties. There was a time when scoring 65% meaning, a big achievement for a student and he was treated as brilliant, and if he touched the seventies, then he was compared with Swami Vivekananda! But today students are getting 100% or near to in Higher Secondary cannot  sure of getting admission to a department of choice in Delhi’s top colleges or in top professional college.

This is the gift of so-called great reforms initiated by so-called great economist Dr.Man Mohan Singh, and learner-friendly modern, liberal and secular education system. In economics, there is the GDP deflator, to assess the level of price, development and inflation on the pricing of goods and services. But there is no deflator to assess the grade and inflation of marks in high school, intermediate and at a higher level.

Scoring 100% in English, once considered impossible, is a very common scene. Now a very simple question comes to mind, whether our kids are getting more intelligent and brilliant, or whether awarding high marks is a clever ploy of hiding poor education system.

It cannot be claimed that Indian students are intellectually and academically getting higher because our school grades are getting higher and higher every year. However, knowledge, discipline, manners etc., signal that the students are going down and down.  While at one end, college cut-offs keep touching the sky, but our international ranking in science, technology and innovation keeps going down. In other words, scoring high marks definitely does not mean learning well, at least in India. Even in the top 200 hundred universities, no Indian university is found. 

During the last decade, our students are getting higher and higher grades on certificates and degrees but all these brilliant performances on mark sheet and degrees do not reflect our knowledge levels. See to 2014 Global Innovation Index, 81% of patent applications are from China, the US, Japan, South Korea and the EU. America leads in computer systems, South Korea has emerged as the new entry in the knowledge and research map but India is nowhere to be seen. Europe and America are the leaders and China, Japan and Korea is close to them but we are nowhere in the scene. 

But where is the Indian education system heading? In terms of patent applications, we stand nowhere, just a pigmy and cannot stand to match up to any of the world leaders in the field of education, science and technology. Curiously enough, Indians have, patents submitted, abroad are in a large number than those that invented in our universities. Once again, Indian education here has contributed nothing.

In India education is also a part of vote bank politics. The graduate degree of any Islamic madarsa is at par with a degree of IIT, IIM or DU.  Due to this Indian students fare very poor when it comes to reading, writing, science, mathematics and technology even behind third world countries like Jordan, Armenia, Thailand and Singapore.

It would be unpatriotic if it is said that our coveted IITs, IIMs, University of Delhi, etc., do not appear among top 300 institutions of the world. Our head goes down in shame when we see that from very small nations institutions make the grade in the list.  It is not only American or western universities are always on top but even Peking University is at 48th position, unknown Tsinghua University at 49th and even ordinary  Fudan University, at rank number 194th, is much above than our the best. Even Singapore University, Bangkok University is above Indian universities.

Here through education, campuses and students, vote bank politics is chased. Now educational policies are not about excellence or quality education, but about vote bank politics.

Now politicians initiate education policies and not the academicians. Now Right to Education (RTE), No Detention System, Mid Day Meal, Sarva Siksha Abhiyan, Madarsa Education, Caste and Communal Quotas, political appointees, etc., are responsible for this fate.

There was a time when first-class meant badge of excellence, but today 60% means nothing. Now grade inflation and high award of marks are ordered by the policymakers. Question papers have become more and more objective where right answers can be procured easily. But when it comes to writing a sentence or a paragraph, students fail to write correctly.

If examinations and evaluation are done honestly and no cheating is allowed, the pass percentage in the best of Indian universities cannot cross 20%. Such scenes can be seen in the best on Indian institutions like IITs, DU, FTII, etc… Then political fathers jump in the campuses and all the failed are passed. 

Long back, the then BJP government in Utter Pradesh, headed by Shri Kalyan Singh, brought very tough, Anti Copying Act and all the cheating was stopped. But the results could not cross 10% at 10th and 12th standards and all the campuses were emptied of students.

Quality education is not the priority of ay body. This suits everybody; political masters, authorities and students. All are happy. The more generous the system of marking, grading, examination and admission, the more modern, liberal, free, pro-learner, stress-free and scientific system it will be and less pressure there is on students to perform.  Schools, universities and institutions, all are attacked by this malaise.

Now, one can see politicians, bureaucrats, judges, NGO operators, Civil society and right activists etc., etc., occupying big positions in academic bodies. During the UPA regime, all the academic institutions were plagued by such elements. This is one very important reason why good teachers and professors are driven out of the system by bad elements.

Now, it is almost a rare scene in some department and institutions to see a below B plus or below 55%. This discourages the urge to work hard when one is getting a good grade without hard work. However good achievers in Indian Universities perform very poorly on the world stage. Grades and marks are going high but educational standard and knowledge level are going down. 

That day is not very far when we will see a new mathematical system of getting 110% and 120% in place of 100%.

Open Book Exam is a shut case

Covid-19 has forced the educational institutions to shut down. There is a big confusion regarding the conduct of exams. The University of Delhi proposed the online Open Book Exam (OBE) for ten days for safety concerns due to the prevailing condition of Covid-19 epidemic. As usual, this has created more confusion and controversy about the feasibility of the exams. 
Postponement of the Exam
The University was planning to conduct the for its final year or semester exams from July 10 has been postponed till the August. So, a question arises how feasible and good to conduct the Open Book Exam? This is not a workable solution. The exams are conducted to evaluate the critical thinking, knowledge, theoretical understanding and analytical skills of a learner. But the OBE fails here on these parameters. Although, IIT Indore has conducted online OBE exam of 263 students, including some international students. The authorities’ claim that this was done to de-stress the students as delaying the exams would have jeopardized their placements.
However, the University of Delhi is not IIT Indore where students are in lakhs. OBE cannot be an ideal solution in the case of DU. Moreover, the IIT system and students and teachers are expert in Technology Enabled Evaluation (TEE), for the delivery of question papers and receiving the written answer sheets.
Aligarh Muslim University also has this option in consideration, since it feels the conduct of normal off-line exam is almost impossible. They also claim to ease the burden and pandemic related stress.
As usual, most of the students complain about the dearth of study material, the problem of internet connectivity and other technical glitches. In India, students are pampered badly and now they are used to of spoon-feeding. They are almost crippled.
However, fair and rigorous exams are essential and crucial to pass. The universities and boards should conduct off-line exams in parts on the campuses. In August, exams can be conducted. In the first week, Post Graduate, Honors exams can be conducted, in three shifts a day where students are in less number. In the second week Under Graduate (B.A.), in the third week Under Graduate science (B.Sc.) and the fourth week, Under Graduate commerce (B.Com.) exams can be conducted. Several universities conduct exams in three shifts per day.
Every year students spent and drop for several years preparing for different competitions for professional courses and civil services. If they lose a few months owning to Covid-19, pandemic, it will not make much difference in their career. Moreover, the standard in India is already very poor. A few years back in its report, the word bank commented that almost 90% of Indian graduates are unemployable. Infosys chairman Shri Narayan Murthy also holds the same view. He found the situation a little better and found 75% of Indian graduates are unemployable.
So, if Open Book Exam should not be held. It will further deteriorate the academic standard of the students. Another aspect is this that more than 50% of the students are non-serious students. For them, a few months of delay in exams make no difference.

अतिक्रमण ने नगर को नाले में बदला

मानसून ने दस्तक देनी प्रारम्भ कर दी है। इंद्र देवता भी अपने भक्तों को दर्शन देकर कहीं प्रसन्न कर रहे हैं और कहीं झमाझम बरस कर परेशान कर रहे हैं। गाज़ियाबाद भी बारीश के इस खेल से अछूता नहें है। मानसून के द्स्तक देते ही शहर में जल भराव की गम्भीर समस्या उत्पन्न हो जाती है और सारा शहर लगभग एक दरिया में तब्दील हो जाता है।
इस समस्या के लिये जितना प्रशासन दोषी है उससे भी ज्यादा दोषी नगर की जनता है। नगरवासियॉं ने सड़्कॉं के सभी नाले और नालियॉ को अवैध निर्माण से या तो ढ्क दिया है या फिर कब्जा कर लिया है। इससे नगर निगम के कर्मचारी नालियॉ और नालॉं की सफाई ही नहीं कर पाते हैं। इसके साथ ही साथे जब नाले और नाली भरे रहते हैं तो बारिश का पानी सड़्कॉं पर बहता है और सड़्कें गंदें पानी का  दरिया बन जाते हैं।  
इस समस्या का सबसे प्रमुख कारण अतिक्रमण है। अतिक्रमण ने सारा नगर बर्बाद कर दिया है। सिर्फ  सख्त कार्यवाही ही इलाज है। कुछ क्षेत्र जैसे कैला भट्टा, इस्लाम नगर, शिब्बन पुरा, पटेल नगर, शहीद नगर, हिंडन विहार, तुराब नगर, घंटा घर, जस्सीपुरा, मालीवाणा आदि को  अतिक्रमण ने बर्बाद कर दिया है,। इन क्षेत्रॉं में स्थिती बरसात के दिनॉं मे बहुत खराब हो जाती है।
कालोनी, बाजार, सड़्कें आदि सभी इस बिमारी के गिरफ्त में हैं। इस अवैध अतिक्रमण के कारण सफाई में बहुत मुश्किल आती है। अतिक्रमण के कारण, नगर से नाली-नाले और सड़्कें गायब होती जा रही हैं। इसके साथे-साथ लोग सीवर में भी गाद, कूडा, पत्थर की घिसाई की गाद आदि सीवर में भरते हैं। इससे सीवर भी जाम और बंद हो जाते हैं। फलस्वरूप गंदा पानी सड़्कॉं पर आ जाता है।  
सफाई के साथ ही साथ, नगर निगम को हर पार्क में रैन वाटर हार्वेस्टिंग की भी व्यवस्था करनी चाहिये। इससे बारीश के पानी को जमीन सोख लेगी। इससे सड़्कॉं पर जल भराव की समस्या भी कम हो जायगी। अगर जनता और प्रशासन सहयोग करें तो यहा समस्या बड़े आराम से हल हो जायेगी। जनता और प्रशासन दोनों ही अपनी-अपनी जिम्मेदारी समझें तो इस  समस्या का निदान बड़े आराम  से निकल जायेगा।
प्रशासन नालॉं, नाली और सीवर की सफाई पर करॉड़ॉं रुपये खर्च करती है परंतु जल भराव की समस्या का कोई निदान नहीं दिखाई पड़्ता है। प्रशासन इलाकों के हिसाब से कर्मचारियॉं और ठेकेदारॉं की जवाबदेही तय करे और अगर जलभराव होता है तो उनके खिलाफ सख्त कार्यवाही सुनिशचित करे। एसी तरह नाली, नालों और सड़्कॉं पर अतिक्रमण करने वालों के खिलाफ भी कठोर कार्यवाही करें तथा भारी अर्थदंड लगायें।  जनता भी अपनी जबाबदेही सनझे। अपनी गलतियॉं के लिये प्रशासन पर दोष लगाने की मानसिकता का त्याग करना होगा। तभी इस समस्या का उचित समाधान होगा।


Brothers and sisters of India, a very natural question comes to the mind, why police do the so-called fake encounters? The simple answer is that such outlaws failed not only the nation but the entire system, especially the justice system. As they were not honouring the human rights of the citizens, then why the police are respectful to the human rights of a criminal. Brothers and Sisters of India, this is very sad and tragic if the dead ones were innocent citizens but if the dead were terrorists or criminals than it was a good encounter necessary to safeguard the lives of the common man.

Yajnaarthaat karmano'nyatra loko'yam karmabandhanah;
Tadartham karma kaunteya muktasangah samaachara.

9. The world is bound by actions other than those performed for the sake of sacrifice; do thou, therefore, O son of Kunti, act for that sake (for sacrifice) alone, free from attachment!


Our system is completely in shambles or failed. Honourable Supreme Court of India itself recently admitted that the Indian system is heaven for criminals and harassment for simple and innocent citizens. This is a reality and a very sad reality. These criminals have failed the nation, failed the constitution and above all failed the justice system of the land so destined death through encounters real or fake.

Our system and our justice system failed to punish the likes of Dawood Ibrahim, Chota Shakeel, Maulana Masood, Muktar Ansari, Atiq Ahamad, Zakir Naik, Hassan Ali etc., and shortly, there is no hope that such dreaded criminals and terrorists will be brought to the justice system. They have no respect for this nation, for the system of this country, for the constitution of this country, for the justice system of this country. So why should nation or system care for such outlaws, terrorists and bandits?

Tasmaat twam indriyaanyaadau niyamya bharatarshabha;
Paapmaanam prajahi hyenam jnaana vijnaana naashanam.

41. Therefore, O best of the Bharatas (Arjuna), controlling the senses first, do thou kill this sinful thing (desire), the destroyer of knowledge and realisation!


Encounters specialist do a great service to the nation and people by eliminating dreaded criminals in encounters. At the time they and their family members are at risk, but even then they serve the people, society and nation. In this manner, they have eliminated thousands of dreaded criminals all over the country. In Gujarat, in Maharashtra, in J&K, in Punjab and elsewhere brave patriots have eliminated thousands of criminals and people are much safer. If all those criminals would be living today, the nation would have been completely under the control of criminals. But instead of honouring such patriots and great servants of people this ungrateful nation is haunting them and harassing them.

In Gujarat alone, many brave and patriot policemen have spent many years in jails for eliminating dreaded criminals. In this nation due to vote bank politics criminals and anti-national are a national celebrity and brave and patriotic police personal are treated as criminals. This is the irony of this nation. In Gujarat, a notorious terrorist Shorabuddin Sheikh was killed in an encounter. This Shorabuddin during his crime career killed more than fifty innocent people. Indian system and the Indian judiciary completely failed to punish him. But when that dreaded criminal was killed by the police, then those brave and patriotic police officers were rotten in the jail. Now this notorious criminal is a national celebrity, thanks to so-called secular vote bank politics.

Encounter specialists like Daya Nayak, Pradeep Sharma, Ravindra Angre, Vanjara, Mohan Lal Sharma, Rajveer Singh, K.P.S.Gill, Navneet Sikera etc., are national assets. For their safety, Parliament must make some law.

This is high time, in the interest of nation a USA type Patriotic Act must be prepared, in which security personal must be powered to kill dreaded criminal, terrorists and illegal intruders without fear of being punished and prosecuted. When Pakistani invaders were brutally slaughtering Indians in Jammu and Kashmir in 1948, the apostle of non-violence and Father of the Nation Mahatma Gandhi exhorted the Indian Army to wipe out the invaders and slaughterers. The Gita also says a sinner must be killed.

Ajnashchaashraddhadhaanashcha samshayaatmaa vinashyati;
Naayam loko'sti na paro na sukham samshayaatmanah.

40. The ignorant, the faithless, the doubting self proceeds to destruction; there is neither this world nor the other nor happiness for the doubting.

Tasmaad ajnaanasambhootam hritstham jnaanaasinaatmanah;
Cchittwainam samshayam yogam aatishthottishtha Bharata.

42. Therefore, with the sword of knowledge (of the Self) cut asunder the doubt of the self
born of ignorance, residing in thy heart, and take refuge in Yoga; arise, O Arjuna!


It is sad if somebody dies. Dead tells no tales. There is no suffering beyond death. Families of criminals suffer but they are the ones who also enjoy their clout just like the family of corrupt officers enjoys life. If police, judiciary and bureaucracy are not reformed likes of Vikas Dubey will be created and has to face encounters as there is no other medicine for them. 

Sunday, 12 July 2020

Youth and the world

I want to write, I want to sing;
Starless night like a glass of wine gone empty; 
Wilderness silence like empty church; 
A girl is sold at the gambling table, 
The drunkard players in the dark-room fought, 
The law-makers roll up their sleeves, 
The policeman dozes at his post, 
The gate-keeper leaves the gates ajar, 
Half tight laces on his boots to win the race,
Youth dance naked in the false-rain mall, 
The young driver stares at the young girl, 
Though know not her. Want to win universe.  

Friday, 10 July 2020

History of poetry

Poetry is the oldest, ancient and the most popular art form much older than the written form. In ancient time the earliest poetry have been recited or sung, employed as a way of remembering religion, traditions, oral history, wars, martyrdom, sociology, love, genealogy, and law. In one form or another, poetry has been around for centuries. However, the epic poem seems to be the oldest example of poetry, appearing as early as the 20th century B.C.  Centuries later other forms like the sonnet, lyric etc. appeared in the 13th century.
Poetry is generally related to musical traditions and dance. The earliest poetry exists in the form of hymns, such as the work of Sumerian priestess Enheduanna, and other types of song and hymns such as Hindu hymns and chants. So, poetry is a verbal creative art. Many of the poems surviving from the ancient world are recorded prayers, or stories about religious subject matter, but they also include historical accounts, instructions for everyday activities, love songs, and fiction. The Mahabharata contains all types of poetry and is the best example.
The author of the first poem is unknown. However, ‘The Epic of Gilgamesh’ who was a king of Uruk and contains about the stories of quests and adventures, is considered to be the first poem. Besides this epic, the ‘Rig Vedas of Hinduism’ and the ‘Song of the Weaver’ from Egypt are among the first poems.  The Rig Veda, Sanskrit verse composed in the ‘2nd millennium BC.’  
Sanskrit literature refers to texts composed in Sanskrit  language since the 2nd-millennium BCE. Many of the prominent texts are associated with Hindu religion and its branches. i.e., Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and were composed in ancient India. In ancient period, India covered central, east and Southeast Asia. Early works of Sanskrit literature were transmitted through an oral tradition for centuries before they were written down in manuscript form.
Many scholars, mostly those researching the Homeric tradition and the oral epics of the Balkans, suggest that early writing shows clear traces of older oral traditions, together with the use of repetitive phrases as larger poetic units. A rhythmic and repetitive form would make a long story easier to remember and narrate, before writing was started. Thus many ancient works, from the ‘Vedas’ (1500 - 1000 BC) to the ‘Odyssey’ (800 - 675 BC), and the  ‘Puranas’, ‘Bhagawads’, the  ‘Ramayana’, the ‘ Mahabharata’, the  ‘ Gita’, etc  to have been composed in poetic form to aid memorization and oral transmission, in primitive and ancient societies.  Poetry appears among the earliest records of most literate cultures, with poetic fragments found on early monoliths, runestones and stelae. These were the methods to write on big stones or stone slabs.
Poetry in Africa
In Africa, poetry has a history dating back to pre-historical times. They have hunting poetry, and panegyric means, away of praising in poetic form and elegiac court poetry those were developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile, Niger and Volta river valleys. Some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the ‘Pyramid Texts’ written on the walls of pyramids and written during the 25th century BC. The ‘Epic of Sundiata’ is one of the most well-known examples of ‘griot’ court poetry. In African cultures, performance poetry was very popular which was traditionally a part of theatrics, that was present in all aspects of pre-colonial African life and whose theatrical ceremonies had many different functions, including political, educative, spiritual and entertainment. Africans have very old traditions of poetry with dance and music.
Poetry was a part of theatrical presentations of local oral artists, linguists and historians, accompanied by local African musical instruments such as the ‘kora’, the ‘xalam’, the ‘mbira’ and the ‘djembe’ drum. Drumming for support should not to be confused with performances of the ‘talking drum’, which is a literature of its own, since it is a diverse method of communication that depends on conveying meaning through non-musical grammatical, tonal and rhythmic ways imitating speech. These performances could be included in those of ‘griots’. Unfortunately, with the arrival of Church and missionaries local African literary traditions were either destroyed or banished. 
Ancient Epic Poems
‘Speculative Fiction’ contains supernatural and unread poems. An Egyptian epic, the ‘Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor’,  is the oldest surviving ‘speculative fiction’ where a man is lost in strange-supernatural land, written in ‘Hieratic’ or priestly sermons and ascribed a date around 2500 B.C.E. Other sources mention the earliest written poetry to the ‘Epic of Gilgamesh’ written in ‘cuneiform’; used during Mesopotamian age, however, it is most likely that ‘The Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor’ predates ‘Gilgamesh’ by half a millennium. The oldest epic poetry besides the Epic of ‘Gilgamesh’ is the Greek epics ‘Iliad’ and ‘Odyssey’ describing Trojan War, and the ‘Indian Sanskrit’ epics the ‘Ramayana’ and the ‘Mahabharata’. Some scholars believe that either the Mahabharata or the ‘Tibetan Epic of King Gesar’ describing ancient legends and myths is the longest example of epic poetry in history.
Thinkers believe that the idea which makes poetry unique as a form and what distinguishes good poetry from bad resulted in the development of "poetics” ", or the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as the Chinese through the ‘Classic of History’, developed principles of poetic works that had system as well as aesthetic importance.
Context is important to poetics and to the development of poetic genres and forms. For example, poetry employed to record historical events in ‘epics’, such as ‘Gilgamesh’ or Ferdowsi's  ‘Shahnamesh’  a Persian epic depicting mythical and historical events of Persia, will necessarily be lengthy and narrative. Poetry used for ‘liturgical’ or public purposes in hymns, psalms, suras, and hadiths and  is likely to have an inspirational tone. Elegies and tragedies are intended to invoke deep internal emotional responses. Other contexts include music such as ‘Gregorian chants’, related with Pope Gregory, formal or diplomatic speech, political rhetoric and invective,  light-hearted nursery and nonsense rhymes, threnodies to the deceased and even medical and scientific texts.
Calliope, is from Greek mythology, which is a goddess of Muse presiding over epic poetry and literal meaning beautiful voice, is the muse of heroic poetry
Aristotle's Poetics describes ‘the three genres of poetry’, epic, comic, and tragic. He develops rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry of each genre, based on the underlying purposes of that genre. Later three major genres were identified: epic poetry, lyric poetry and dramatic poetry. Comedy and tragedy were treated as sub-genres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the so called ‘Islamic Golden Age’, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. But with the advent of Islam this creative art was not allowed to bloom. Later poets and aestheticians often distinguished poetry from, and defined it in opposition to, prose, which was generally understood as writing with a liking to logical illumination and global trade. In addition to a boom in translation, during the Romantic period numerous ancient works were rediscovered. Now there are more than two hundred poetic forms.
History and development of Chinese poetry
Poetry could not flourish much due to the perpetual violence in that area but they also contributed a bit. The character which means "poetry", in the ancient Chinese ‘Great Seal script’ style the ‘Classic of Poetry’, which is Chinese writing before Qin dynasty,  often known by its original name of the Odes or Poetry is the earliest existing collection of ‘Chinese poems’ and songs. This poetry collection comprises 305 poems and songs dating from the 10th to the 7th century BC.
The stylistic development of ‘Classical Chinese poetry’ consists of both literary and oral cultural processes, which are usually assigned to certain periods or eras, corresponding with Chinese Dynastic Eras, the traditional chronological process for Chinese historical events. The poems preserved in written form constitute the poetic literature. Furthermore, there is or were parallel traditions of oral and traditional poetry also known as popular or folk poems or ballads. Some of these poems seem to have been preserved in written form. Generally, the folk types of poems are anonymous. They have been edited or improved in the process of fixing them in written characters. Besides the Classic of Poetry, or ‘Shinjing’, (related with Buddha) another early text is the Songs of the South (or, Chuci), (an anthology of Chinese poetry) although some individual pieces or fragments survive in other forms, embedded in classical histories or other literature.
Modern developments
The development of modern poetry is generally seen as having started at the beginning of the 20th century and extends into the 21st century. Among its major practitioners are Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens, (American poet) and Anne Carson, a Canadian port famous for the ‘Autobiography of Red’ in verse form.
The use of verse to transmit cultural information continues today. Many Americans know that "in 1492, ‘Columbus’ sailed the ocean blue". An ‘alphabet song’ teaches the names and order of the letters of the alphabet; another jingle states the lengths and names of the months in the ‘Gregorian calendar’.
Some writers believe poetry has its origins in song. Most of the characteristics that distinguish it from other forms of utterance—rhythm, rhyme, compression, intensity of feeling, the use of ‘refrains’—appear to have come about from efforts to fit words to musical forms. In the European tradition the earliest surviving poems, the ‘Homeric’ and ‘Hesiodic’ (Greek poet) epics, identify themselves as poems to be recited or chanted to a musical accompaniment rather than as pure song. Another interpretation is that rhythm, refrains, and ‘kennings’ (a way of expression in old English) are essentially ‘paratactic’ (literary technique of short and simple sentences) devices that enable to recite and to reconstruct the poem from memory.
In pre-literate societies, these forms of poetry were composed for, and sometimes during, performance. There was a certain degree of fluidity to the exact wording of poems. Written composition meant poets began to compose for an absent reader. The invention of printing accelerated these trends. Poets were now writing more for the eye than for the ear.
Lyric poetry
The development of literacy gave rise to more personal, shorter poems intended to be sung. These are called lyrics, which derives from the Greek lura or lyre, the instrument that was used to accompany the performance of Greek lyrics from about the seventh century BC onward. The Greek's practice of singing hymns in large choruses gave rise in the sixth century BC to dramatic verse, and to the practice of writing poetic plays for performance in their theatres. In more recent times, the introduction of electronic media and the rise of the poetry reading have led to a resurgence of performance poetry in the lyric genre.
Sanskrit Literature
Sanskrit language contributed the greatest poetry. Dramas, poems and stories were written in Sanskrit language in ancient India. Some of the popular ones are: Panchatantra, Hitopadesha, Rajatarangini, Dashakumaracharita, Mrichakatika, Mudrarakshasa, Ratnavali, Nagananda, Priyadarshika, Mattavilasa, Baital Pachisi, Singhasan Battisi (Siṃhāsana Dvātriṃśikā).
Bhasa’s Svapna Vasavadattam (Swapnavāsadatta) ("Vasavadatta's dream"), Pancharātra, and Pratijna Yaugandharayaanam ("The vows of Yaugandharayana"), Pratimanātaka, Abhishekanātaka, Bālacharita, Dūtavākya, Karnabhara,  Dūtaghatotkacha, Chārudatta, Madhyamavyayoga and Urubhanga.
Kalidasa’s Vikramorvasiyam ("Vikrama and Urvashi"), Malavikagnimitram ("Malavika and Agnimitra"), Abhijnanasakuntalam ("The Recognition of Shakuntala"), Raghuvamsa ("The Genealogy of Raghu") and Kumarasambhava ("Birth of Kumara"), Rtusamhara ("Medley of Seasons") and Meghaduta (The Cloud Messenger).
Kadambari is a romantic novel in Sanskrit. It was substantially composed by Banabhatta in the first half of the 7th century CE. Vedas and their Shakha, Rigveda, Samaveda, Krishna Yajurveda, Shukla Yajurveda, Atharvaveda,
Hindu Sanskrit texts are manuscripts and historical literature related to any of the diverse traditions of Shruti, namely the Vedas and the early Upanishads. Many scholars include the Bhagavad Gita and Agamas as Hindu scriptures, while Dominic Goodall includes Bhagavata Puranana and Yajnavlkya Smriti..
The Smriti Sanskrit texts are a specific body of Hindu texts attributed to an author, as a derivative work they are considered less authoritative than Sruti in Hinduism. The Smrti literature is a vast corpus of diverse texts, not limited to Vedangas, , the Hindu epics, the Sutras and Shastras, the texts of Hindu philosophies, the Puranas, the Kāvya or poetical literature, the Bhasyas, and numerous Nibandhas (digests) covering politics, ethics, culture, arts and society. 
The Hindu texts were composed orally, then memorized and transmitted orally, from one generation to next, for more than a millennium before they were written down into manuscripts. This verbal tradition of preserving and transmitting Hindu texts, from one generation to next, continued into the modern era.
Mattavilasa Prahasana (Devanagari:मत्तविलासप्रहसन), (English: A Farce of Drunken Sport) is a short one-act Sanskrit play. It is one of the two great one act plays written by Pallava King Mahendravarman (571– 630CE) in the beginning of the seventh century in Tamil Nadu.
Madura Vijayam  (Sanskrit: मधुरा विजयं), (English: The Conquest of Madurai), is a 14th-century Sanskrit poem written by the poet Gangadevi. It is also named Vira Kamparaya Charitham by the poet. It chronicles the life of Kumara Kampanna Udayar or Kumara Kampanna II, a prince of the Vijayanagara Empire   and the second son of Bukka Raya. The poem describes in detail, the invasion and conquest of the Madurai Sultanate by the Vijayanagara Empire.
Tattvartha Sutra is a Jain text written in the Sanskrit language. It is regarded as one of the earliest, most authoritative books on Jainism, and the only text authoritative in both the Digambara and Śvētāmbara sects. Shant Sudharas Bhavana is a famous book in Jainism written by Jain monk Vinay Vijay also called as Yashovijaya.

N.B. In this article, information has been gathered from different sources. Sources have not been given as it was a lecture.
Kindly bear this omission.

Non-Hindus contribution to the caste system of Hindus

Linguistic derivation of ‘caste’:
It is well known truth that the word ‘caste’ derived from ‘casta’ a Portuguese word. But with the arrival of the Iberians to Asia and the Americas, they began categorize people by a new order ‘caste’.
These close-knit, normatively endogamous groups have a long history in Southern Asia. But the division had no bitterness and hate. For centuries, they have been described with the Sanskrit “varna”, or “jati”, Arabic “qaum”, Persian “zat” and others. But there is no equivalent word for “caste” in any Indian or Asian language. It was imported by Christians and missionaries as a loan-word but is today firmly set in Indian public and policy system. All know that the original users of the term (as casta) were Iberians – Portuguese and Spanish, first in the European-Iberian Peninsula and then it was exported to Asia and the America. But one thing is very clear neither Indians nor Hindus were in any way related with this word and system. Later on due to the political reasons the term became very popular – descriptively, administratively, and sociologically.
Two Iberian Empires began and, those for more than a century, controlled all the trans-Oceanic business enterprises of modern Europeans. These were the Spanish in the Americas and the Portuguese in Asia. Several Iberian kingdoms had begun a brutal religious persecution against Jews in the 1300s. A large numbers were converted by force. But to the dismay of many “old Christian” churchmen in high positions, the educated and affluent among the Jewish converts then controlled the Church and royal service.
Classification by descent
Furthermore, converts’ importance among tax-collectors naturally made them unpopular with poorer Christians. The interests of clerics and lower class thus joined together first in pogroms and then in justifying their hostility towards converts via a doctrine of “purity of blood.”  A new idea was forced that only “old Christians” were superior and worthy of favour in Spanish and Portuguese society.  Leaders of the new idea had to contend against long-established Church dogma that all humans are redeemable through Christ. Quite remarkably, they nonetheless succeeded in prioritising original Christians above converts.
It was widely practiced that “New Christians”, “conversos” etc., particularly those belonging to the “casta de judios”, or lower castes were excluded from high positions. (The above is drawn mainly from Albert Sicroff, Le Controverse de Statuts de Pureté de Sang 1960.)  This became a harsh prejudice that deepened into the 19th century.  “Casta” before 1500 was used to refer to type or breed of plant or animal: but it now came to denote a class of human separated by birth. It was thus accepting on the rising concept of race or caste. Even now an ordinary dictionary mentions its denotation with the idiom “eso me viene de casta” illustrating as “it’s in my blood”.
It is natural that when the Iberians, Christians, and missionaries came to Asia and the America, they quickly began grading people by birth and descent. Converted Christians were treated as inferiors. Indians did not have this grading of lower or higher. They only used “varna’ to marry within a specific set of families and later on it was translated by Iberians, Christians and missionaries as “caste” defined as a “marriage-pool”. Iberians however swiftly misinterpreted that this was practiced by a desire to maintain the purity of their “blood”. American anthropologist, Morton Klass propagated the same views.  Not only this, The Portuguese and Spanish also began grading a “sistema de castas”, a caste system in the Spanish colonies in America at the same time.
Influence of migration on Language
From 1580 to 1640 Portugal and Spain were one united nation under one monarchy. More significantly, both were controlled by authoritatively, by the dominant racial dogma well entrenched in the Iberian Catholic Church. The Portuguese initiated later-migrating Europeans to the Indian subcontinent and Indians to a new class of Westernization. Asian languages borrowed many Portuguese words.
One of these was casta, anglicized to cast or caste. Most discussion has accepted that the borrowed -word was used to a pre-existing and very old indigenous “varna’ system, and intruded the sense of bitterness in the Indian social system that was strengthen by the political maneuvering by the political parties and intellectuals propagating secularism and social justice.  
In the 20th century, with the increasing influence and cultural clout of the west and USA, supporters of this idea have ever more mixed caste to the Western division of race and colour. They have also forced it to be prevalent to the Hindu system in the Indian population. This has been a potent and relentless argument, even though many unbiased authorities, such as the expert sociologist Joseph Elder, have pointed out many faults in the accepted Western perceptive of Hindu caste.
Thinkers erroneously claim that “Castes are exclusively Hindu”. But in India, “castes exist among Christians, Muslims, Jains, Sikhs, and Buddhists.” Another system about marrying within one’s caste and evading relations with other castes are much more strict among Muslims or Christians, as amid Hindus. This system is also has an important point of its stability. The British colonial rule – the most powerful of South Asian realms – used it in its legal, administrative and political system.
The American anthropologist Morton Klass pointed out that the Portuguese and Spanish were creating a system of ethnic and social stratification by genetic or birth descent; it was for this motive that they instantly thought that Indian jāti or varna endogamous linage were intended at preserving  “purity of blood”.
Europeans, did not try to eradicate caste but to ease most traits of it to a disquiet of critics, not related with the faith (adiaphora). Converts of diverse castes were thus forced separate churches and graveyards.
 Jesuit missionary Nobili motioned, this was a well-known practice by 1615. Even, Nobili quoted a Brahman convert who had faced discrimination after conversion, reacted to the analysis that Nobili’s coluor was proof to his being a wicked “prangui” (barbaric Westerner).
“You reproach the saniassi [ascetic, meaning Nobili] with being a vile Prangui and cite his color as that argument I prove that you are a paria [a Dalit caste-name]. You are black; parias are black so you are therefore a paria. What! Can you not conceive that in another country where all men, brahmans and parias alike are white, there will be among the whites the same distinction of castes, the same distinction between nobles and commoners? Everyone applauded this reply, which was as substantive as it was spirited.”
The word casta to stand for any category of descent group penetrated other European languages. For example, the Dutch were by 1640 relating the wives of some sailors as of “Portuguese casta”. It also penetrated into English too.
Early colonial governments in Asia misused the administrative worth of caste as a way to organize and divide “civil society”. The Dutch conquered Sri Lanka from the Portuguese and imposed a stern caste structure there. Even separate labour and tax laws were framed for each caste in order to prolong Dutch colonial rule. The customs and peculiarities of caste were meticulously imposed by Dutch penal set of laws.  The British rule not only continued this but strengthened it in Sri Lanka.
Similarly, in the first British colony in India, in Bombay island, the administration divided the local people into the “severall nations at pres[ent] inhabiting on the Island of Bombay be categorized or identified into so many castes or tribes and that each group or nation may have a Cheif (sic) or Consull of the same group or nation chosen over them by the Gover[nor] and Councell”.
In 1900, the British government in India brought the controversial Land Alienation Act, an important agrarian act controlling property sale-purchase among two particular categories of “Tribes and Castes” depicted as ‘agriculturist’ and ‘non-agriculturist’. They incorporated Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs. This was the legalizing the caste and tribe enclaves and villages in India. The British government also commissioned regiments, educational institutions, government jobs etc. denoting castes and tribes. The British also classified castes on the basis of profession, skills like priestly, business, martial and even branded some as criminal tribes.
This article is based on the article and blog of Sumit Guha, Professor of History,  The University of Texas at Austin first on blog of the Journal of the History of Ideas.
For more details read his: (European) Beyond Caste: Identity and Power in South Asia, Past and Present (Indian) Beyond Caste: Identity and Power in South Asia, Past and Present.